Some examples of sustainable design of products influenced by materials occurring at the different stages of the product life cycle include the use of low toxic emission aqueous-based paint systems replacing solvent-based paint systems for motorcar bodies at the product manufacturing stage, the use of low energy consuming fluorescent lightbulbs replacing incandescent lightbulbs at the product use stage, and the use of recyclable or biodegradable beverage containers for the product disposal stage.
The processing of materials has significant impacts on the environment, including the use of water, land use patterns, undesirable emissions to air, water, and land, and the consumption of other important environmental resources .
Therefore, materials selection in the product design process must be carried out carefully to achieve sustainable products. In this regard, life cycle engineering LCE is one of the best methods. However, because of the large variety of materials and processes, considering LCE when selecting materials may require handling a large amount of data and performing many calculations . Hence, it is reasonable to perform LCE after first obtaining a short list of candidate materials.
The following are some common design principles that help reduce environmental impact of materials [31,33] :. Use low-impact materials by choosing nontoxic materials or recycled materials that require little energy to process. Make longer-lasting and better-functioning products that will have to be replaced less frequently.
There are more details about materials selection and the design and development of sustainable products in Ref. Ali Jahan, Therefore, one of the major opportunities for practicing sustainability is through material selection due to its potential impact on natural environmental systems. Figure 1. Raw materials, product life cycle, and recycling.
Recycling: The use of waste or a waste-derived material as a raw material for products, which may or may not be similar to the original.
Remanufacturing: Through certain refurbishing or restoration processes, some unserviceable products can regain the function and performances of the products which are similar to new ones Yan and Gu, Reuse: Further use of a waste product in its original form, such as the refilling of a previously discarded container Yan and Gu, Disposal: This refers to the elimination of the waste product without recovering any intrinsic value Ishii et al.
In particular, a sustainable material selection means selecting materials that minimize environmental degradation over the whole life cycle of the material, from initial acquisition to eventual disposal or recycling Djassemi, Some examples of sustainable design of products influenced by materials occurring at the different stages of the product life cycle include the use of low toxic emission aqueous-based paint systems replacing solvent-based paint systems for motorcar bodies at the product manufacturing stage, the use of low energy consuming florescent light bulbs replacing incandescent light bulbs at the product use stage, and the use of recyclable or biodegradable beverage containers for the product disposal stage.
The processing of materials has significant impacts on the environment, including the use of water, land use patterns, undesirable emissions to air, water and land, and the consumption of other important environmental resources Allwood et al. However, because of the large variety of materials and processes, considering LCE when selecting materials may require handling a large amount of data and performing many calculations Djassemi, Hence it is reasonable to perform LCE after first obtaining a short list of candidate materials.
Design for Environmental Sustainability
The following are some common design principles that help reduce environmental impact of materials Pfeifer, ; Allwood et al. There are more details about materials selection and the design and development of sustainable products in Ljungberg Katrin E. Kroemer Elbert, Anne D. Kroemer Hoffman, in Ergonomics Third Edition , The characteristics of human vision just discussed provide the bases for engineering procedures to design environments for proper vision.
The most important concepts are the following:. Proper vision requires sufficient quantity and quality of illumination. Special considerations regarding visibility, especially declining visual abilities in the elderly, require particular care in the arrangement of proper illumination. Illumination of an object is inversely proportional to the distance from the light source.
Use of colors, if selected properly, can be helpful, but color vision requires sufficient light. What counts most is the luminance of an object, that is, the energy reflected or emitted from it that meets the eye. Luminance of an object is determined by its incident illuminance, and by its reflectance: 5. Reflectance is the ratio of reflected light to received light, in percent. Figure 5.
Luminance levels experienced by humans. The ability to see an object depends largely on the luminance contrast between the object and its background, including shadows. Contrast is usually defined as the difference in luminances of adjacent surfaces, divided by the larger luminance: 5. Avoid unwanted or excessive glare. Direct glare meets the eye directly from a light source such as the headlights of an oncoming car.
Indirect glare is reflected from a surface into the eyes such as the headlights of a car seen in the rearview mirror. Often, kinds of reflected glare are described as either specular coming from a smooth, polished surface such as a mirror , spread coming from a brushed, etched, or pebbled surface , diffuse coming from a matte, nonglossy painted surface , or compound a mixture of the various types of glare.
Place high-intensity light sources outside the cone of 60 degrees around the LOS. Use several low-intensity light sources placed away from the LOS, instead of one intense source.
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Use indirect lighting, where all light is reflected at a suitable surface within the luminaire or at the ceiling or walls of a room before it reaches the work area. This generates an even illuminance without shadows.
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However, shadows may be desirable to see objects better. Direct lighting when rays from the source fall directly on the work area is most efficient in terms of illuminance gain per unit of electrical power; but it can produce high glare, poor contrast, and deep shadows. Indirect lighting when the rays from the light sources are reflected and diffused at some suitable surface before they reach the work area helps to provide an even illumination without shadows or glare, but is less efficient in terms of the use of electrical power.
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The Roadmap and the State of the Art. Evolution of Sustainability in Design Research and Practice. Design Criteria and Guidelines. Diagrams of Environmental Impacts. This educational effort will encourage changes in behaviour that will create a more sustainable future in terms of environmental integrity, economic viability, and a just society for present and future generations.
I requisiti ambientali dei prodotti industriali, Maggioli editore, Rimini, Allen, D.. By comparing different products, designers can make decisions about which environmental hazard to focus on in order to make the product more environmentally friendly. Modern day businesses all aim to produce goods at a low cost while maintaining quality, staying competitive in the global marketplace, and meeting consumer preferences for more environment friendly products. To help businesses meet these challenges, EPA encourages businesses to incorporate environmental considerations into the design process.
The benefits of incorporating DfE include: cost savings, reduced business and environmental risks, expanded business and market opportunities, and to meet environmental regulations. Besides these large brand names there are several other consumer product companies in the DfE program this including:.
Designing for Environmental Sustainability - Digital Engineering 24/7
Stratospheric ozone protection is required by section of the Clean Air Act of This regulation aims to decrease emission of chlorofluorocarbons CFCs and other chemicals that are destroying the stratospheric ozone layer. The protection initiative categorizes ozone-depleting substances into two classes: Class I, and Class II. Class I substances include 20 different kinds of chemicals and have all been phased-out of production processes since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Washington, DC: U. Journal of Cleaner Production.