The philosopher who, with this question of the meaning and purpose of the theory, relativizes the possibilities of the theory itself, becomes a dialectician. Plato responds to this with the myth of Anamnesis. Remembrance of the past life of the soul. Cambridge University Press. In Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Grassl eds : Sprache, Logik und Philosophie, Akten des 4. Giford Lecture, St. Andrews , in: H.
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Dimensions of Mind, New York , pp. RortyVsPlaton: but judgmental expressions are not names of esoteric entities. Lepore Ed. Truth and Interpretation. Perspectives on the philosophy of Donald Davidson, Oxford, pp. Reprinted in: Paul Horwich Ed. More important to them is the question of how the human behaves in relation to this object. Thus, objects cannot even be defined.
Plato: There are always many of the same kind of the mathematical objects, while the idea is always only one. Thiel: one may think of the four-time appearance of the isosceles triangle in the square. They exist on or in objects and can be isolated by abstraction.
Mathematical objects are not themselves concrete, real objects. But they also have no "separated being". Each number is always only number of something. T I Chr. Thiel Philosophie und Mathematik Darmstadt The latter is about the way of thinking. I 13 Old definitions of "mathematics" 19th century: she was "ultimately" science of numbers. In the strict sense in the 20th century it is no longer represented this way. Validity is conceded, but the content is denied. Thiel I 23 et seq. More important to them seems to be the question of how the human relates to it. Distinguishing between inventing and discovering.
Plato: Euthydemos: Geometers, mathematicians and astronomers are like hunters, they explore what is already there. I 24 AristotleVsPlato: he had joined Kratylos and Heraclitus to the extent that even after him there could be no science of the sensual, since everything was in flux.
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Thus, a definition of objects is not even possible. Plato: there are always many of the same kind of mathematical objects, while the idea is always only one. Thiel: one will be allowed to think of the four-time occurrence of the isosceles triangle in a square. I 25 AristotleVsPlato: denies the existence of mathematical objects independent of body things. Each number is always only the number of something. Pi I St. No object description applies to a greater measure to the true nature of an object than any other description.
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NominalismVsPlato: nature cannot be dissected at its joints. Materialistic MetaphysicsVsNominalism: these are representatives of a "language-bound idealism". The materialists believe that Dalton and Mendeleev actually cut nature at its joints. Kripke also. Wittgenstein merely mesmerized by words. II Nominalism: protest against any kind of metaphysics. Hobbes mistakenly linked nominalism with materialism. Quine still links it to that.
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RortyVs: it is a contradiction to believe that words for the smallest particles of matter will dissect nature in a way in which is not possible with other words! A contradiction-free nominalism must emphasize that the prediction success of such a vocabulary is irrelevant for the "ontological rank".
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NominalismVsHeidegger: Words like "physique" or "essence" are not "more essential" than words such as "Brussels sprouts" or "football" I Nominalism: like Gadamer : as far as we understand anything at all, we understand it with the help of a description, and privileged descriptions do not exist!
Nominalism: what the approach to something fixed, hidden is to the metaphysicists, is the invention of a discourse to the nominalists. This western view belongs to Kant himself. In the consequence of nominalism, the subjective moment of the concept of idea prevails.
Ogden trans. Knowledge requires thinking not contemplation. Thus, from what is actually the object of an action, becomes a prior reality: the good becomes an in-itself! Coincidence with Nietzsche: Twilight of the Idols. The true world is attainable for the wise. The true world is unattainable, unprovable, not promisable, already thought as comfort.
Is the real world unattainable? In any case, it is unattained. Gray morning, first yawning. The "true world" is an idea that is not useful for anything. Bright day 6. Dew II J. Problem: if there are no directions, the second cannot be a sequence of the first.
So natural numbers and real numbers would actually be sets. Quine reluctantly professes Platonism. Solution: it is about choosing a language. Of course, this should not be interpreted in terms of time. Conceptualism: allows fewer classes. But rests on a rather metaphorical reason: "Origin". Reason: a union of color spots has the same color, but a union of spots of a certain shape does not necessarily have the same shape. The objective is never given, but must be actively introduced into the practical situation. The possibilities for action must be structured. Political institutions are to be understood from an ethics point of view.
The ruler is not a large-scale housekeeper. A common goal is to be investigated. In the polis, the character of "self-sufficiency" replaces the elementary natural conditionality. Objective: Eudaimonia, the "good life", in this highest of all objectives, the practice structure returns, as it were, reflexively to itself. Problem: Contradictory towards the natural: on the one hand, the essence of practice as a goal has been politically entered into its own telos, and this legitimates talk of man as a political entity by nature. On the other hand, the natural conditions have been overcome thanks to a self-sufficient practice.
Nothing but practice itself, no nature defines the good. This self-determination means freedom. That is only a superficial contradiction. Allows gradual treatment.